ASTRONOMY, ASTROLOGY AND FALAK SCIENCE (English)

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ASTRONOMY, ASTROLOGY AND FALAK SCIENCE

 

(by: Farida Ari)

 

 

When hearing the word astronomy, astrology and falak science, our thoughts are feeling confusion about the difference in the three of terms it. Basically, all three terms are there is a difference and do so interesting to explore how science is the three of terms relationship.

Astronomy is the scientific study of the stars, moon, planets, galaxies, dark matter and others that can be observed by scientific methods: by using mathematics, science, computers, telescopes (optical and radio), or spacecraft. And in general Astronomy is the science which studied about cross celestial bodies (especially the moon, earth and sun).

While the word falak means the orbit of celestial bodies orbit, so that falak science is the science which studies the path of heavenly bodies, especially the earth, moon and sun in their orbits respectively. In this case, synonymous with falak science is astronomy, the difference is the falak science is the term used by the Islamic people to learn about these heavenly bodies (earth, sun and moon) as the importance of worship such as the direction of qibla, prayer time, the beginning of the month and Eclipse. While astronomy is the science that studies celestial bodies in general. Actually among astronomy and falak science there is no dichotomy, in fact that is often misunderstood is between astronomy and astrology.

We know that almost everybody when they hear the word astrology be recalled in a column based on the horoscope the twelve zodiac signs in magazine and newspaper, but real astrology is not limited to just twelve zodiac signs. In general, astrology is a language, art and science which studies the relationship between the cycles of heavenly bodies and human life on earth. Astrology has been known since the days of Babylon about 4,000 years ago. At present there are three kinds of astrology is quite popular western astrology, Chinese astrology (Shio) and Indian astrology (Iyotisha).

In effect falak science that developed in Islam, actually emerged from the science of astrology as a legacy of the Greeks (Yunani) and Romans (Romawi). Because at that time the Arabs living in the desert is very hot and open. Their lives are often on the move. Moreover, behind his life, they used to travel long distances to trade to the neighboring countries. So they need time to make the trip.

At the beginning of the Islamic message brought by Prophet., falak science has not experienced significant development. Because at that time Muslims just busy with jihad war and spread the teachings of Islam to all corners of the world. So the study of astronomy activities for much less so. As if any, it is only limited direct knowledges which Allah granted to the Prophet Muhammad SAW however, there has been no scientific studies based on science.

Field falak science discussion is the sky with all things in it. Babylonian civilization, China, ancient Egypt, Persia, India, Greece, is a civilization which has been incised in the observation of nature and history have their ideas about the universe, of civilizations is also the birth of modern astronomy acceleration. And until recently, research about the universe have come to the enlightenment with a variety of amazing discoveries, though mystery still slipping behind this universe. The progress of science and technology to detect natural movements of this vast universe. Moon circulating around the Earth, the Earth rotates around the Sun (revolution) in addition to circulating within its own axis (rotation), Mataharipun circulating around the galactic center, where each galaxy consists of millions of billions of stars moving around it.

Previously, human understanding of the universe is nothing more than mere observation, without any explanation of the theoretical and experimental as it is commonly done to find a natural phenomenon. Regularity and beauty of the universe is a former human attractions. The universe does imply many things, resulted in a wide range of laws of physics are different. And we, humans, live in one universe, the laws of physics supports our existence. The universe does have billions of mystery that always attracted human attention over time, and from this came the science of astronomy or in Islam is called falak science. This science was born came from the human effort to uncover the secrets contained in the universe. Astronomy is always there in life, astronomy is the oldest branch of science that continues to be studied humans until now.

Astronomy developed into a branch of science that not only review the position and movement of heavenly bodies, but also physical and evolution. Its growth so rapidly that caused the birth of new branches, such as astrophysics (emphasis in terms of physical structure and composition, is no longer the position and movements of celestial bodies), cosmogony (emphasis on the origins and evolution of the solar system), cosmology (emphasis on origins and evolution of the universe), and new ones are bioastronomy (emphasizing the possibility of extraterrestrial life). Theories are always updated when there is other evidence that complete or abort the original theory. Through astronomy, humans try to describe what and how the processes of natural phenomena can occur in the context of experiments and observations, with parameters that can be observed and measured, which can really be too wrong. Religion further expand the spectrum of meaning of the universe for humans on the presence of objects of the universe.

At the beginning of its development can not be well separated astronomy with astrology, both studying the position and movement of celestial objects. Basic and orientation are different. Astronomy based on pure scientific study which states that any theory should be tested again to prove its truth. The orientation is to learn the secrets of nature. While astrology based on the belief that heavenly bodies influence on the lives and future of humans and does not require proof of whether or not this "theory" that developed. The orientation in forecasting the possibility of human life.

Actually, astrology is the basis of observation. That is why astrology can say something scientific and have a common ground with science. The process of observation was then followed by data collection until then pulled a hypothesis. The observation and the withdrawal of this hipotests then collected over the centuries to become the science of astrology as we know it today. Thus, astrology has nothing to do with the mystical world, so that someone who intends to study astrology does not need to have a sixth sense and supernatural forces such as the people call supernatural powers.

And certainly there will be a question also, whether astrology can be compared with the forecast? The answer of course not, and we more appropriately call it a prediction. As scientists predict weather or a stock broker estimates the value of shares, as did the astrologers attempt to predict what events will happen in the future. The difference is only a database that is used. Scientists use climate data of a country as its criterion, stockbrokers utilize data fluctuations in stock prices in the past, while astrologers use the location of celestial objects as a reference for their evaluation.

Should, if we do not yet know exactly what that astrology should not rush to ignore him and claimed that astrology directly related to the mystical world, actually usefulness of studying the uniqueness is to understand ourselves and our role in this universe. And be sure to understand it we need to use the philosophy of science by borrowing August Comte's theory about the three stages of historical development, the first stage of theological, human understanding of natural phenomena as a result of the direct action of divine power. The second was the metaphysical stage, at this stage is divine actor who personally replaced by the principles of metaphysics in the form of abstract forces, such as 'nature', scientific-positive stage, at this stage is characterized by a large enough confidence in science and technology.

Learning from the theory, we will more easily understand what it is astronomy, falak science and astrology, so that it can draw the conclusion that astrology is actually not related to the mystical world. Making sky maps are not based on astrological unseen, but through a series of mathematical and astronomical calculations are complicated. The astrologers since the time of thousands of years ago has made the observation on the relative positions of celestial objects with each other. And keep in mind that astrology is a blend of science, art and philosophy. Astrology was studied on the influence of the solar system in diverse forms of life and its effect on humans and are associated with the earth. Astrology also provides guidance on all aspects of life, harmonizing the mind, body, soul. Astrology makes it easy for someone to predict the future. This prediction is based on observation, perception, calculation and experiment. Because it is only a prediction, analysis with astrology may have missed, we as humans have free will in making use of the wild energy of this universe and certainly contained no positive or negative. But people often mistakenly between astrology with astronomy. Astronomy forward the scientific method and scientific. Therefore, astronomers can not predict someone's personality such as astrology. Astronomy can not account for and explain the horoscope based on science.

Astrology is different with astronomy, but astronomy is rooted in a remarkable scientific discovery of this ancient Babylonians who later on reinforced by Galileo. If Astrology is only based on an estimate and read the movements of celestial bodies to see the future, Astronomy is a science of observation of events occurring outside Earth and its atmosphere. Astrology theory that placed the earth as the center of the universe and then refuted by Copernicus which provide evidence that the real earth around the sun and the sun was the center of the universe.

This milestone in the establishment of the science of astronomy which is then greeted by the world community. Astrology contributed greatly to the development of world science and inspiring some scientists such as Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, Galen, Paracelsus, Girolamo Cardan, Nicholas Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler, Carl Jung and others. And science astrology who originated the systematic movement of the Sun, Moon, Planets and Stars, and from where the various sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics, Health and psychology originated.

Then from here is also the world's scientists managed to find the secrets of the universe from the scheme of earth orbiting the sun, heliocentric theory, the dynamics of the heavens and the law of gravity, until the findings of physics and science that we learned until now. Astrology and horoscope readings are not always harmful and has been blamed as not allowed, but behind it all astrology keep world secrets waiting to be shelled by the humans.

 

Ahmed Benhamouda

Ahmed BENHAMOUDAAhmed Benhamouda est un écrivain algérien né à Cherchell en 1887 et mort à Nice le 22 avril 1966.

Biographie

Études à la médersa d'Alger puis en France, chargé de cours à la faculté des lettres d'Alger, professeur agrégé d’arabe en 1928.
Il enseigne successivement à Cherchell, Tombouctou, Saint-Louis (Sénégal), Paris et Tunis.

Bibliographie

  • « L'autruche dans la poésie de Du-l-Rumma », in Mélanges Louis Massignon, tome I, Damas, 1956.
  • L'Iran, histoire mythique, 1966. Alger, SNED, 1980.
  • Morphologie et syntaxe de la langue arabe, Alger, SNED, 1983.
  • « Étoiles et constellations », in Annales de l'Institut d'Études orientales, tome IX, 1951.

Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre

al-Battani

Al-BattaniAl-Battani (env. 855-923) était un astronome et mathématicien arabe (on écrit aussi Al Batani, et en latin : Albategnius, Albategni, Albatenius ; nom complet : Abu- ?Abdulla-h Muh.ammad ibn Ja-bir ibn Sina-n ar-Raqqi- al-H.arrani as.-S.abi? al-Batta-ni-), né à Harran près d'Urfa. Son épithète as-Sabi suggère que ses ancêtres étaient membres de la secte des Sabéens qui adoraient les étoiles, mais son nom complet affirme qu'il était musulman. On le désigne parfois comme le « Ptolémée des Arabes ».
Al-Battani a travaillé en Syrie, à Ar-Raqqa et à Damas où il est mort.
Son œuvre majeure, le Kita-b az-Zi-j (le « Livre des tables ») composé de 57 chapitres, traduit en latin sous le titre de De Motu Stellarum par Platon de Tivoli (Plato Tiburtinus) en 1116 (imprimé en 1537 par Melanchthon, annoté par Regiomontanus), a considérablement influencé l'astronomie européenne. Une réédition apparut à Bologne en 1645. Le manuscrit original de Platon est conservé à la bibliothèque du Vatican. La bibliothèque de l'Escorial possède un manuscrit de chronologie astronomique d'al-Battani.

Astronomie

Il a corrigé certains calculs de Ptolémée et il a produit de nouvelles tables pour le Soleil et pour la Lune, qui ont longtemps fait autorité. Il a aussi traité la division de la sphère céleste. Il a découvert le mouvement de l'apogée du Soleil, calculé les valeurs de la précession des équinoxes (54.5" par an) et l'inclinaison de l'axe terrestre (23° 35').

Mathématiques

Probablement sans connaître les travaux de l'astronome indien du Ve siècle Âryabhata, il a introduit l'usage du sinus dans les calculs, et en partie celui de la tangente, formant ainsi les bases de la trigonométrie moderne.

Il a utilisé les idées d'al-Marwazi sur les tangentes (ou « ombres ») pour développer des méthodes de calcul des tangentes et des cotangentes, et il en a dressé des tables.
Il a créé plusieurs formules trigonométriques :

formules trigonométriques

formules trigonometriques

Il a aussi résolu l'équation

Formules trigonometriques

en la traduisant par l'équation suivante:

Formules trigonometriques

source wikipedia

 

Al-Biruni

Al-BiruniAbu Raihan Muhammad Al-Biruni (aussi Alberuni; arabe : أبو الريحان البيروني ; persan : ابوریحان بیرونی) (né le 15 septembre 973 - mort le 13 décembre 1048) est un mathématicien persan (plus précisément, tadjik) de confession chiite, un astronome, un physicien, un érudit, un encyclopédiste, un philosophe, un astrologue, un voyageur, un historien, un pharmacologue et un précepteur, originaire de la Perse et de l'Asie centrale, qui contribua grandement aux domaines des mathématiques, philosophie, médecine et des sciences.
Il est né dans un faubourg de Kath, au Khwarezm, appartenant à la Perse pour des siècles et actuellement en Ouzbékistan, près de l'actuelle Ourguentch. Son nom vient du persan birun : extérieur, faubourg (de Kath). Son village a été renommé Beruni d'après lui. Il étudia les mathématiques et l'astronomie sous Abu Nasr Mansur.
Il fut un collègue du philosophe et médecin Ibn Sina, l'historien, philosophe et éthiciste Ibn Miskawayh, dans une université et un établissement de science établi par le prince Abu Al Abbas Ma'mun Khawarazmshah. Il voyagea aussi en Inde avec Mahmûd de Ghaznî et l'accompagna dans sa campagne, apprenant la langue, et étudiant leur religion et leur philosophie, il écrivit un livre sur ses découvertes. Il connut aussi le grec, et probablement le syriaque et le berbère. Il écrivait ses livres en persan (sa langue natale) et en arabe.

Réalisations

Quelques unes de ses performances notables :

  • À l'age de 17 ans, il calcula la latitude de Kath, au Khwarezm, utilisant l'altitude maximum du soleil.
  • À 22 ans, il a écrit plusieurs ouvrages courts, incluant une étude sur les projections de cartes, « Cartographie », qui inclut une méthodologie pour projeter un hémisphère sur un plan.
  • À 27 ans, il a écrit un livre appelé « Chronologie » qui fait référence à un autre ouvrage qu'il a complété (maintenant perdu) qui incluait plusieurs ouvrages dont un livre à propos de l'astrolabe, un à propos du système décimal, quatre à propos de astrologie, et deux à propos de l'histoire.
  • Il calcula le rayon de la Terre à 6 339,6 km (ce résultat fut utilisé en Europe au XVIe siècle).

 

Travaux

Illustration d’une éclipse de lune par al-Biruni.Illustration d’une éclipse de lune par al-Biruni.

Les travaux d'Al-Biruni sont au nombre de 120.
Ses contributions aux mathématiques incluent :

  • l'arithmétique théorique et pratique,
  • la sommation des séries,
  • l'analyse combinatoire,
  • la règle de trois,
  • les nombres irrationnels,
  • la théorie des rapports,
  • les définitions algébriques,
  • une méthode pour résoudre les équations algébriques,
  • la géométrie,
  • les théorèmes d'Archimède,
  • la trisection de l'angle.


Ses travaux non-mathématiques incluent :

  • Étude des idées de l'Inde, qu'elles soient conformes à la raison ou rejetées par celle-ci (en arabe تحقيق ما للهند من مقولة معقولة في العقل أم مرذولة) - Un compendium de la religion et de la philosophie de l'Inde. (Aussi appelé Livre de l'Inde.)
  • Les signes restants des siècles passés (en arabe الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية) - Une étude comparative des calendriers des différentes cultures et civilisations, mélées avec des informations mathématiques, astronomiques, et historiques. (Aussi appelé Chronologie.)
  • Le canon Mas'udi (en arabe القانون المسعودي) - Un livre à propos de l'astronomie, la géographie et l'ingénierie, en l'honneur de Mas'ud, fils de Mahmud de Ghazni, à qui il est dédicacé
  • Comprendre l'astrologie (en arabe التفهيم لصناعة التنجيم) - Un livre en style question - réponse à propos des mathématiques et de l'astronomie, en arabe et en perse
  • Pharmacologie - à propos des drogues et des médicaments
  • Gemmes (en arabe الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر) à propos de la géologie, minéraux, et des gemmes, dédicacé à Mawdud fils de Mas'ud ("Gemmes" en anglais, libre complet en ligne)
  • Astrolabe
  • Un livre de résumé historique
  • Une histoire de Mahmud de Ghazni et de son père
  • Une histoire de Khawarazm

 

source wikipedia